Like all land-uses, agriculture loses nutrients into the environment. Problems occur if the amount lost (particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus) gets too high for the environment to cope with. In many cases, the environment around farms includes freshwater ecosystems (rivers, lakes and groundwater) that support local communities.
Farm nutrient losses are spread out over the farm (diffuse losses). This loss is unlike factory or sewage treatment discharges, which can be measured at the end of the pipe. No practical or affordable way exists to accurately measure actual nutrient losses from farms.
In some other countries, where agricultural nutrient losses affect water quality, regulators try to limit farm nutrient losses by controlling farm practices and inputs (such as fertiliser use and stocking rate). However, this approach of controlling farm inputs is widely criticized for restricting innovation in nutrient use efficiency - while also not achieving the environmental outcomes being sought.
Using a model (such as OVERSEER) to predict the amount of nutrients lost annually from a farm lets local regulators put “effects-based” controls on nutrient outputs, rather than controls on farm inputs and practices. This output control approach enables farm decisions to be based on informed outcomes. Output controls also stimulate innovation to reduce nutrient losses, while maintaining a viable business. Output controls are preferable to input controls as they are more flexible, efficient and effective.
OVERSEER predicts nutrient losses as part of a farm's nutrient budget. It is the only tool available in New Zealand predicting annual average nutrient losses from farms. OVERSEER does not model the flow of pathogens present in farm animal dung and urine - only the flow of nutrients introduced by animal dung and urine.
Because OVERSEER uses readily available and auditable information, OVERSEER is increasingly being used by councils to inform regulation limiting nutrient losses from agricultural land – in an effort to protect water quality.
OVERSEER has been used by two councils in New Zealand since 2009 to support water management policies. More regional councils are now using OVERSEER for this purpose, and its use is expected to grow as councils implement the government’s National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management.
Like all models used in regulation, there are challenges for regional councils in incorporating OVERSEER numbers into their regulatory processes. Modelled information needs to be applied appropriately, according to the limitations of the model. For regional councils using OVERSEER, challenges include:
OVERSEER Limited works with regional councils to ensure OVERSEER is used appropriately in regulation, given OVERSEER’s capabilities and assumptions.
In response to the above challenges, regional councils, central government, OVERSEER Limited and industry are working together to create guidance on the use of OVERSEER in regulation. The work is important, as it will produce guidance for councils on the use of OVERSEER in policy, planning and rules covering farm nutrient losses.
This Overseer Use in Regulation Guidance Project has three phases:
For more information on the project, download the FAQs